What is layering?
Layering is a technique of multiplication by rhizogenesis: it is the development of roots on the aerial part of a plant. For this, it is necessary to put a branch in contact with a moist substrate until the appearance of roots. From there, you can wean the new plant.
By burying the branch of a plant, it allows to reproduce new roots without having to cut twigs. The new foot thus obtained is perfectly identical to the mother foot. It does not undergo degeneration. This technique also guarantees the chances of recovery of the plant concerned.
Natural or artificial, layering is used when cuttings are difficult. This multiplication method is fairly easy to perform and does not require a very high level of gardening. One of the major advantages of this technique is that it is fun and free.
The different types of layering
Before proceeding with layering of your plants, there are a few things to know and take into account:
- the branches should be flexible. So prefer an august wood
- the branch should be buried in a quality substrate, rather rich and moist
- the best time to lay a plant is the summer season
- be careful not to soak the earth: this could cause mold
- plant your weaned marcots in individual pots before planting them in the ground in your garden.
There are different types of layering, to choose depending on the type of plant you are going to lay.
- "layering" layering: this is the most common basic layering. It consists in burying the middle of a low branch in a hole after having stripped it. It is suitable for plants with flexible twigs. In November, your marcotte will be ready to be replanted in an individual pot, before the winter season.
- "hillock" layering : it is suitable for plants subject to transplant rejection. A plant is felled close to the ground during the winter, and new branches are formed. A mound of sand and earth is built around them, until the appearance of new roots.
- "aerial" layering: the leaves are cut and incised on its middle part, then it is left in a sort of damp sleeve made up of potting soil and sand. It is practiced on shrubs with difficult roots and indoor plants.
- serpentine layering: it is the same principle as layering by coating. However, we choose a rod long enough to be buried in several places. This technique is recommended for climbing or creeping plants.
- layering in "variety": in spring, bury a full foot, leaving only a few shoots to stick out. Once winter has passed, you can dig up the base. The new roots are ready to be collected and used. This type of layering is perfect for fruit trees.
When to lay on?
Rather in spring, or in summer. Layering in autumn is also possible, depending on the plants.
You should know that this multiplication technique is simple but long: the new plant can sometimes only be weaned after a year.
A few layering plants
Layering suitable for all plants with long stems like climbing or creeping plants: wisteria, clematis ... These techniques can also be used on fruit trees (kiwi, plum ...) or difficult indoor plants like ficus.
Heather and other short-stemmed bushes can also be layered, using the layering technique.