How to plant and cultivate wheat?

How to plant and cultivate wheat?

Characteristics of wheat

  • Type: vegetable plant
  • Height: from 60 to 80 cm, from 80 cm to 1 m, from 1 to 2 m
  • Flower colors: yellow
  • Fruit name: Corn
  • Desired exposure: sunny
  • Type of soil: normal, well drained
  • sanitizer: no
  • variety: Spring wheat, Winter wheat, Alternative wheat, Spelled, Triticum turgidum

Origins and peculiarities of wheat

The wheat (Triticum aestivum), also called common wheat, is part of the poaceae family. It is the most important and most cultivated wheat species in the world, especially in France, Canada and Ukraine.

Thewheat wheat plant is in the form of long stems with green-blue leaves up to thirty centimeters, on which grow white spikes loaded with two or three flowers. Wheat, when mature, can reach a meter in height, or even more.

There are many types of wheat originating in the Near East, such as spring wheat, winter wheat or even alternative wheat.

Uses of wheat

Wheat is today the best species of wheat but also the most cultivated. Its seeds are used mainly for the preparation of wheat flour necessary for the manufacture of wheat bread, but also for the production of white beer or even cereal bars. Wheat is also widely used for animal feed, due to its balance and its amino acid supply.

Wheat cultivation

Wheat is currently the most cultivated variety of wheat on the globe. This is far from coincidence in view of all the qualities that the soft wheat, which is a plant:

  • Robust and very resistant to diseases;
  • Whose culture tolerates climate change very well;
  • Shows an interesting return;
  • Contains carbohydrates (especially starch) and proteins (especially gluten, which gives it an interesting elasticity, especially for pastry).

Wheat plantation

Generally, wheat seedlings are planted in October, an ideal period for its humidity and still mild temperature. The plants are spaced three centimeters apart, to give them room to flourish.

Before sowing, it is necessary to prepare the soil by digging it and weeding it, so that the wheat is not affected by weeds. Once planted, the wheat must know the rigors of winter to develop, it is the vernalization. It is only in the following spring that tillering takes place, during which the stems become stronger.

Finally, towards the end of April comes the time of the rise: it is when the wheat stalk reaches its adult size.

Wheat harvest

The wheat harvest occurs in July, when the stem has dried well, and the ear begins to bend down: it is time to harvest.
Once harvested, and to shell the wheat in small quantities, you must knead the ear between your fingers, going from the base to the top. The grains are ejected. To recover a larger quantity of grains, it is advisable to place a sheet on a flat ground covering the ears, and to tap it using a stick. The grains are heavier than the rest, so it will be easy to recover them with the help of a hair dryer.

Wheat diseases

Wheat is a vegetable plant that can be affected by many cryptogamic diseases, including:

  • The foot-scald (which touches the roots) and the foot-pour (which touches the stems);
  • Powdery mildew, rust, Fusarium wilt and septoria leaf spot (which affect the leaves and / or ears of wheat).