Native to the temperate climate zones of the northern hemisphere, the pear tree is a fruit tree of the genus pyrus belonging to the rosaceae family. It is cultivated on all continents, mainly for its fruits, pears, but also for its wood, much appreciated by cabinetmakers, and its bark, which is used medicinally.
Characteristics of the pear tree
It is a medium-sized tree that easily reaches fifteen meters high. The pear tree (Pyrus communis) is characterized by its finely serrated oval leaves on the sides, as well as by its small spring flowers with white petals. The pear tree moderately appreciates the hot weather, it is therefore preferable that it develops in a rather ventilated place. It is also very demanding on the ground, not supporting wet, dry or limestone soils. Indeed, thepear tree only develops properly on fairly cool sandy and clay soils rich in humus.
Cultivation of pear
The pear tree is cultivated almost only by grafting, a simple sowing does not make it possible to obtain interesting taste fruits. The types of graft recommended are, first, the graft in shield which is very effective in summer for stone fruits, then come the split graft, which is one of the simplest to practice, and the graft in crown, rather performed in autumn.
Pruning and care of the pear tree
To stimulate the appearance of many pears, a size of fruiting is necessary before the resumption of the vegetation. This pruning only occurs on formed trees: we remove dead branches and those that cross. We clear the pear after cleaning it, we must remove the branches growing towards the inside of the tree. And we end up trimming the main branches by cutting the ends while leaving at least three eyes and taking care not to modify the silhouette of the fruit tree.
Uses of pear
Pears are fruits commonly eaten fresh or as a dessert, such as Poire belle Hélène. The pear can also be declined in juice or in brandy.
Enemies of the pear tree
At the end of winter and after flowering, a preventive treatment is applied to the Bordeaux broth in order to avoid diseases. Many pests (mealybugs, aphids) and ailments (European canker, pear rust or even pear entomosporiasis) can attack it.
Discover Doctor Plantes' recommendations for treating a pear tree attacked by aphids!
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