In detail

How to plant and cultivate the pepper?

How to plant and cultivate the pepper?

The characteristics of the pepper

  • Type: vegetable plant
  • Height: up to 1m
  • Flower color: White
  • Fruit name: the pepper
  • Desired exposure: sunny
  • Type of soil: humus
  • Sanitizing: no

Origins and characteristics of the pepper

The pepper (capsicum annuum) is both the name of a plant and of a fruit. It is a sweet variety of the Capiscum annuum species, which also includes more or less hot peppers. Native to South America and Mexico, this plant belongs to the Solanaceae family. Peppers have been consumed in Europe since the 18th century. The decorative pepper plant can also brighten up an interior.

It does not exceed 50 centimeters high and has large shiny leaves, lanceolate and ribbed. White flowers appear in spring, but it is mainly for its fruits that the pepper is grown. These, with smooth skin, contain small pepper seeds and can be green, red, yellow, purple, brown or black.

The pepper is eaten as a vegetable when it is green, if it is large enough. Always green at the start, the peppers become red or yellow when they ripen.

The pepper can be grown both in a vegetable garden and in a pot on a balcony.

The pepper is good for memory. It is rich in vitamin C and it prevents cancer. Peppers are among the most fiber-rich plants, helping to stimulate intestinal transit.

Pepper planting

The pepper rbursts of sunshine and heat. It is planted in early spring, ensuring that each plant has room to flourish (60 centimeters between each) or it is sown in a warm environment (20 ° C minimum).

As the pepper is a gourmet plant, planting should be carried out in soil rich in humus and well drained.

For a culture of potted peppers, choose a fairly deep pot, at least 30cm deep. Fill it with a mixture of planting soil and coarse sand.

Maintenance of the pepper plant

Water regularly so that the soil is never dried out, add fertilizer (nettle manure or other) and hoe frequently. Peppers can be harvested about six months after sowing, when they have stopped growing.

Also remember to mulch the feet of your peppers, if they are in a vegetable patch. This helps to decrease evaporation from the soil.

The size of the pepper is not necessary. However, pruning makes it possible to obtain larger peppers and bring them faster to maturity. Limit each foot to 10 to 12 peppers.

For a pot culture of peppers, watering should also be frequent, and the advice to apply is the same as a culture in the ground.

Harvest of bell pepper

Whatever the variety of pepper, the pepper harvest takes place between July and October. You can use a knife or pick them by hand.

Enemies and diseases of the pepper

The pepper may be attacked by mites and black aphids. Bacteria can also create brown spots on the foliage. A lack of heat or excess humidity will inevitably cause rot.

Peppers grown outdoors can be affected by anthracnose, powdery mildew or even phytophthora.

To avoid anthracnose, use Bordeaux broth as a prevention. This disease creates small hollow lesions on your peppers. Powdery mildew is caused by a fungus that covers leaves and fruit with a thin white layer. Treat at the first signs by removing the parts of your plants that are affected.

Uses of Pepper

Whether green or red, this vegetable from the same family as the chilli pepper colors our plates. Consumed raw, it is necessary to remove its skin so that it is more digestible. It is found cut into rings or pieces in the salad composition. Cooked, the pepper regularly accompanies the fish. It can be prepared in the grill, in the oven, in the stew…

The pepper is good for memory. It is rich in vitamin C and it prevents cancer. Peppers are among the most fiber-rich plants, helping to stimulate intestinal transit.