The characteristics of the jujube
- Type: fruit tree
- Height: 5 to 10 m
- Flower colors: yellow, cream
- Fruit name: jujube
- Desired exposure: sunny
- Type of soil: well drained, sandy
- Foliage: spent
- Interview: easy to maintain
- sanitizer: no
- variety: ziziphus africana, ziziphus amphibia, ziziphus nabeca, ziziphus insularis, ziziphus angolito
Origins and peculiarities of the jujube
The common jujube (ziziphus jujuba) is a fruit tree of the botanical family of rhamnaceae. Originally from China, it has its origins dating back to 2000 BC. J-C. It is a fairly easy-to-grow tree, and for which there is only one drawback: it grows slowly, and you usually have to wait about 4 years before you can enjoy its fruits! Also known under the names of guindanlier, chichourlier or date palm, the jujube tree is a hardy tree which can withstand temperatures up to -30 ° C for certain species.
Visually, the jujube is characterized by a rather irregular silhouette, a drooping habit, oval or pointed and crenellated leaves and shiny foliage; making it a popular tree in ornamental gardens! During flowering (which takes place during the months of June and July), the jujube tree is adorned with fairly fragrant white or yellow flowers.
The jujube fruit, called jujubes or also chinese dates, have a taste similar to that of green apple when they are fresh, and to that of date when they have been dried. Their size and shape varies according to the species.
Uses of jujube
The fruit of the jujube tree is reputed to contain anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial active ingredients. It therefore acts favorably against coughs and respiratory tract infections. It is also used to treat diarrhea thanks to its astringent properties, and it also helps to lower the fever. Jujube oil is used in cosmetics.
The chinese date can also be used in cooking: once ripe and therefore very red, the jujube can be used to make jams, fruit in syrup, candied, fruit pastes ... or simply crunch nature in order to make you enjoy its richness vitamins, sugars, calcium and iron!
Planting and maintenance of the jujube tree
The planting the jujube tree does not require any particular effort: just be sure to plant the tree in a sunny place, sandy and well-drained soil (the jujube tree does not support heavy and too wet ground, even less stagnant water!).
Apart from the first year following its establishment where it will be necessary to water it often and give it a lot of fertilizer (essential to ensure good growth), the jujube tree will not need any particular maintenance. You just have to get rid of its dead wood and give it, before winter, the shape of your choice. Adding some manure in the spring can only do him good.
Multiplication of the jujube
In the fall, the simplest method for multiplying the jujube tree is to plant one or more jujube stones, preferably broken in half, in a container, then to sprinkle them frequently until germination. In spring, you can put in the ground the stems which will remain under shelter in the light and warm all winter.
Diseases and pests of jujube
In the South of France, the jujube can be attacked by the Mediterranean fly which lays eggs under its skin, but also by the cochineal.